Monoxenic cultures of the fungi, monilinia fructicola and botrytis cinerea and undifferentiated sugarcane leaf spindle callus were inoculated with ca. The significance of root transmission of the red ring nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus to coconut palms cocos nucifera was investigated in a screenhouse experiment. Plantdisease71n02 193 american phytopathological society. Boron deficiency in oil palms in the kasai region of the. Life cycle adult female weevils which are internally infested with b. Gejala pada batang berupa adanya garis melingkar berwarna merah pada jaringan. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus wikimili, the free encyclopedia.
Sep 20, 2018 urban areas landscaped with ornamental palms, especially canary islands date palms phoenix canariensis, are particularly vulnerable to incursion by invasive palm weevils, rhynchophorus spp. New plantparasitic nematode from the mostly mycophagous. The common name, the red ring nematode, is derived from its distinguishing symptom. The symptoms produced include spots or blotches on leaves, distorted tissue and stunted and deformed buds.
Bursaphelenchus cocophilus nematodes infect palm trees and cause the red ring disease that is fatal to palm, coconut and other fruit trees. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus parasitizes the south american palm weevil rhynchophorus palmarum, which serves as a vector. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus pdf although cocophilus is undeniably close to other species in the genus bursaphelenchus and may well prove to belong to that genus, there remains some. Juveniles of five species of nematodes were extracted from the genitalia and macerated bodies of newly emerged adults of the palm weevil. The red ring disease of coconuts and african oil palms is caused by the nematode bursaphelenchus cocophilus.
Nematodes from female weevils nematodes for male weevils. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus parasitizes the palm weevil, rynchophorus palmarum l. Metroxylon sagu is a true palm belonging to the order arecales, family palmae, and subfamily calamoideae. Unfortunately, this weevil size vector potential hypothesis has not been supported by field work in grenada 18, e1 salvador 4, and brazil 16.
In suriname wordt bij kokospalm en meer nog bij oliepalm het verschijnsel little leaf waargenomen fig. The red palm weevils are vectors of a nematode bursaphelenchus rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus that causes red ring disease in the americas. Conditions for the importation of economic crops into singapore pineapple ananas comosus for both fruits and plants anguilla, antigua, aruba, barbados. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus has not been reported in the continental united states, virgin islands or hawaii. The red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus, was first described by cobb 1919 as aphelenchus cocophilus from specimens in grenada. This beetle is a vector of a nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, which causes a disease called the malachite ring. Contamination of the palm weevil rhynchophorus palmarum with the red ring nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus in surinam published on 01 jan 1970 by brill. Aug 17, 2019 although cocophilus is undeniably close to other species in the genus bursaphelenchus and may well prove to belong to that genus, there remains some. M eskipun beberapa jenis mempunyai panjang sampai 4 mm. Red ring disease of coconut is caused by rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus in the caribbean and northern parts of south.
Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus rodent pests management management squirrel, funambulus palmarum. Among the starch bearing tree crops, the most important ones are sago palm, mango, plantain, jackfruit, breadfruit and screw pine. Contamination of the palm weevil rhynchophorus palmarum. Lecture different methods of nematode control plant parasitic nematodes can be controlled by several methods. The red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus cobb. Daun yang terserang jadi menggulung dan tumbuh tegak, tidak membuka seperti umumnya. Pdf on jan 1, 1989, r m giblindavis and others published observations on the morphology of the red ring nematode, rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Article culturing bursaphelenchus cocophilus in vitro. Another nematode causing damage is the burrowing nematode.
The red palm weevils are vectors of a nematode bursaphelenchus rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus that causes red ring disease. In glasshouse experiments at wageningen, the netherlands, no infections of rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus from oil palm could be established on 125 threemonthold oil palm seedlings of different crosses, in spite of different methods of application. Metropolitan palmscapes are often resource rich in terms of palm species diversity and density, and these areas typically have numerous conduits e. This disease was first described on coconut palms in 1905 in trinidad and the. Pdf observations on the morphology of the red ring. Pdf on jan 1, 1989, r m giblindavis and others published observations on the morphology of the red ring nematode, rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus nemata. Lal, in encyclopedia of food sciences and nutrition second edition, 2003. Kovachich has described the symptoms, distribution and spread of littleleaf disease of the oil palm1 and presented evidence to suggest that the disease is of physiological origin1,2. Red ring nematodes do not occur in the xylem or phloem tissues, but xylem vessels become occluded with tyloses where they pass through the red ring. Secara umum nematoda berbentuk seperti belut, tubuh tidak bersegmen, simetris bilateral, transparan, tidak mempunyai rongga tubuh pseudocelumate, tubuh dilapisi lapisan kutikula yang lembut sehingga memudahkan bergerak, dan tidak berkaki.
Pestseverityisexacerbated becausefeedinglarvaeareconcealed,andthismakesearly detectionandcontroldifficult. The symptom of this disease is the continuous yellowing of the leaves. Weeks after inoculation number of nematodes per gram of tissue stem cm above soil line roots 156 108 376 189 381 152 189 6 183 178 plants artificially inoculated with nematode suspension. In another publication fenwick, 19g3 data are presented on the distribution of infection in coconut trees infected with the nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus cobb, 1919 goodey, i960. The exper iments were done 3 yr later, when plants. Deze misvormingen blijken reeds te beginnen bij zeer jonge bladeren van 2,5 tot 4 cm lengte fig. Since that time, it has undergone several name changes including the change to rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus by goodey 1960. Observations on the course of red ring disease of coconuts. Descriptions are given of the entomophagous insectparasitic females and mycetophagous fungusfeeding free living females, males, and juveniles. Red palm weevils 45 cm in length are potentially lethal pests fig. Although bursaphelenchus cocophilus and rhynchophorus palmarum are not found in florida, some other potential beetle vectors of the red ring nematode metamasius hemipterus and rhynchophorus cruentatus are common in florida. The data favour the hypothesis that the disease can start either in the root system and proceed by upward extension to the stem and thence to the petioles, or alternatively in the upper parts of the tree. Association of the red ring nematode and other nematode. Kerusakan internal biasanya terlihat setelah 23 minggu setelah nematoda menginfeksi jaringan tanaman.
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus an overview sciencedirect topics. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus cobb goodey the red ring nematode, teratorhabditis. The red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus, was first described by cobb. In vivo and in vitro culture of the red ring nematode, rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. The starch is found either in the stem, fruit or seed. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Internal association of dispersal stage juveniles of rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, teratorhabditis sp. As a first step in developing a quick, accurate and simple method for the diagnosis of red ring disease, the loopmediated isothermal amplification lampbased identification procedure was applied to the causative agent, bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus cobb goodey the red ring nematode, teratorhabditis sp.
Rhadinaphelenchus was designated a junior synonym of bursaphelenchus by baujard revue nematol 12. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus nematodes infect palm trees and cause the red. Pairs of these emergent fronds are produced at each node of a horizontal stem that floats just beneath the water surface. If the nematode were introduced to florida, an epidemic could potentially occur. Sago palm metroxylon sagu is a nonbranching palm cultivated in south east asia. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus associated with little leaf of coconut and oil palm h.
The red ring of coconut in the state of ceara, brazil. Read biotechnology for sustainability, by subhash bhore, k. The promoters of the invention are useful for controlling expression of nucleic acids of interest in plant roots. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus occurs intercellularly in the ground parenchymal cells adjacent to and within the red ring in the stem, discolored tissue in the petioles, and in the cortex of the roots. Red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus edis.
Soaking the infested plant tissues in water releases the live nematodes. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, the red ring nematode. The control measures to be adopted should be profitable and cost effective. It has been reported that infested palms have been killed. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus case red ring disease in.
Pdf observations on the morphology of the red ring nematode. This weevil was found in the area of san diego, california in may of 2011 and alamo, texas in may 2012. It is also identified in literature with an alternative scientific name rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. A field survey of figassociated nematodes was conducted during may to june, 20 at the ishigaki and iriomote islands, okinawa, japan.
Red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus, causes the red ring disease of palms and is a very important palm pest in the neotropics. Nematology definition, importance, in agriculture and as. Red ring disease can appear in several species of tropical palms, including date, canary island date, and cuban royal, but is most common in oil and coconut palms. Bursaphelenchus is a genus of nematodes roundworms in the order aphelenchida.
Morphology and description of bursaphelenchus platzeri n. Nematoda berukuran sangat kecil, panjangnya berkisar antara 3001. Several nematodes are associated with coconut, but the most destructive disease affecting the crop is red ring disease, caused by the red ring nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, and on some islands, threatens the existence of this crop. Conditions for the importation of economic crops into singapore. Country state collection locations genbank accession number d2d3 its brazil pernambuco petrolina kt156771 brazil pernambuco petrolina kt156770 kt156784 brazil alagoas maceio. The red ring disease caused by the nematode bursaphelenchus rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus and transmitted by the american palm weevil, rhynchophorus palmarum used to be the most important disease of the coconut and oil palms in tropical america, and it is still prevalent in some plantations. Inoculations of 100 persistent juveniles jiii of the red ring nematode, rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus, into coconut leaf stalks produced red ring infestations in 5060% of the stalks after 34 weeks. Genetic diversity of bursaphelenchus cocophilus table 1. Chlorosis leaf discoloration first appears at the tips of the oldest leaves and spreads towards their bases. Observations on the course of red ring disease of coconuts caused by the nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus cobb, 1919 goodey, 1960 in naturally infected trees volume 37 issue 12 d. Two lamp primer sets were designed using two loci of ribosomal rna genes, i.
Symptoms of red ring disease were first described on trinidad coconut palms in 1905. The red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus cobb, 1919. In vivo and in vitro culture of the red ring nematode. The red ring nematode, bursaphelenchus cocophilus, causes lethal red ring disease of palms. Grant school of theology, the university of the south in a time when it is generally recognized that the original text of the bible cannot be recovered, unless by some lucky. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus red ring nematode appears to be the closest related taxon to b. Techniques and methodologies for nematode disease diagnosis. Radinaphelenchus cocophilus, and rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus. Ciriciri pohon sawit yang diserang oleh nematoda ini adalah. Imprecise methods have been used for determining the prevalence and intensity. Schedulev see clause 3 367 and 10 and 11 3 list of plants and plant materials restricted import permissible only with the recommendation of authorized institutions with.
This agrees with observations that no natural infestation occurs before the palms are 4 years old. Inoculations of 10yearold oil palms in a nematode free field at maracay, venezuela, made in different ways, were successful, no difference in virulence being. Genetic diversity of bursaphelenchus cocophilus in south america. Lecture different methods of nematode control the. Pdf culturing bursaphelenchus cocophilus in vitro and in. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus associated with little leaf of. The nematode control aims to improve growth, quality and yield by keeping the nematode population below the economical threshold level.
Observations on coconut palms artificially infected by the nematode rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus cobb, 1919 goodey, 1960 volume 38 issue 12 lincoln goberdhan. Hosts of this nematode are confined to the family palmae, in which the nematode is known to infect over 17 species. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus palmarum e south american palm weevil rhyncophorus palmarum f leaf minor promecotheca cumingi g palm kernel borer pachymerus spp certified that the embryo cultures are obtained from seed nuts collected from mother trees tested and found free from viroids. Cn101595223a peroxidase gene nematode inducible promotors. Number of active red ring nematodes rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus found in coconut tissue plant number. Geographic locations and origins of coconut host of bursaphelenchus cocophilus isolates used in the study. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus and, when the palm weevil isa pest of the same tree. It is commonly grown in wild swampy areas of malaysia, indonesia, and new guinea. Bursaphelenchus cocophilus causes red ring disease of palms. While the leaves of young plants lie flat on the waters surface, the leaves of mature plants. The invention provides plant gene promoters and regulatory elements that are root specific andor induced by parasitic nematodes. However, there are many others that exist as parasites of plants while a few have been shown to be beneficial in agriculture. Schedulev see clause 3 367 and 10 and 11 3 list of.
They can be found in soil where they feed on fungi, algae, and bacteria among other material in their environment. Transmission by root contact occurred in seven of 15 plants growing araund five inoculated. Observations on coconut palms artificially infected by the. Hama nematoda rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus hama nematoda menyebabkan penyakit cincin merah. Pdf culturing bursaphelenchus cocophilus in vitro and in vivo.
In the netherlands inoculation of 4monthold potted oil palm seedlings with rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus was unsuccessful, in accordance with the experience that palms less than 4 years old dp not develop red ring disease in the field. Mengetahui hama penyakit kelapa sawit agrokompleks kita. Distribution top of page as reported by wattanapongsiri 1966, the genus rhynchophorus has an extensive worldwide distribution, but is concentrated in the tropics. Identification salvinia molesta is a rootless, free floating fern that can be identified by its broadly rounded green fronds. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus a potential foreign threat to florida palms. Most are obligate mycophages, but some feed on wood, with two species, the red ring nematode b. Rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus associated with little leaf of coconut and oil palm. When injected into the trunk, these ectoparasitic forms can cause red ring disease. Evidence strongly indicates that the obligately parasitic rhadinaphelenchus cocophilus is a variant of this ectoparasitic.1233 367 646 1224 1421 26 1207 1071 1237 1409 69 917 66 1367 1538 1584 26 429 320 1577 933 835 1052 1098 815 1596 1220 1047 301 124 1289 1410 73 327 1043 1521 642 396 154 1434 1417 1219 669 235 1236